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dc.contributor.advisor Mokhonoana, M. P. Maswanganyi, Collet 2016-05-31T06:48:17Z 2016-05-31T06:48:17Z 2015
dc.description Thesis (M.Sc. (Chemistry)) -- University of Limpopo, 2015 en_US
dc.description.abstract This dissertation investigated the properties of ferrierite synthesised using different SiO2 sources under identical conditions. The SiO2 sources used were TEOS, water-glass, Aerosil 200 and Ludox LS-30. The synthesis procedure comprised preparation of a gel with molar composition: 20 Na2O : Al2O3 : 37 pyrrolidine : 66:5 SiO2 : 6:3 H2SO4 : 1460 H2O. This was followed by hydrothermal treatment at 160 oC in a stainless steel autoclave for 72 h. The solid products were characterised by XRD, SEM, NH3-TPD and BET techniques. The ferrierite prepared using sodium silicate was more crystalline than ferrierite zeolites synthesised using Ludox LS-30, Aerosil 200 and tetraethyl orthosilicate as SiO2 sources. An amorphous phase was produced when ferrierite was synthesised using unhydrolysed TEOS as a sole SiO2 source. The physicochemical properties of the materials were not only affected by the nature of the SiO2 source, but also some synthesis manipulations such as acid-hydrolysis and water-glass addition when TEOS was used as a primary silica source. There were improvements in the materials produced when the TEOS was pre-hydrolysed with HCl and also mixed with water-glass in equal proportions. The SEM images of ferrierite materials synthesised using water-glass and Ludox LS-30 were uniform. The water-glass-based materials were thin sheets, flake-like images and Ludox LS-30-based produced thin-plate-like morphologies. The micrograph of ferrierite synthesised using TEOS as the SiO2 source showed hexagonal-type morphology and aggregates of smaller particles. There were two types of shapes in the ferrierite synthesised using Aerosil 200 as the silica source, namely, octagonal prismatic and hexagonal type morphologies. An equimolar mixture of TEOS and water-glass showed octagonal prismatic shape with triangular faces along certain edges of the material. The NH3-TPD acid site distribution profiles showed two peaks of weak acid strength at low temperatures (≤ 350 oC) for the representative H-ferrierite investigated. The ferrierite materials synthesised using unhydrolysed TEOS and Ludox LS-30 as SiO2 sources, showed NH3 desorption peaks at higher temperatures (≥ 350 oC). These peaks correspond to ammonia eluted from strong acid sites. The BET surface area of ferrierite synthesised using water-glass was high, while the material synthesised using unhydrolysed TEOS had the lowest surface area. Novel crystal shapes, comprising octagonal prisms with additional triangular phases, were observed in ferrierite samples prepared by the use of TEOS/water-glass mixture as silica source. The zeolitic materials prepared in this study were tested for the efficiency in the removal of Cu2+ from simulated wastewater, using a batch method. The effects of initial pH, initial concentration, contact time and adsorbent dose on Cu2+ adsorption were studied. All the materials showed maximum metal uptake efficiency at pH 5, and this pH was fixed in further studies involving other variables. It was observed that the metal uptake from aqueous solution increased with contact time and adsorbent dose. The Na-form of ferrierite synthesised using water-glass was the poorest Cu2+ adsorbent with respect to the four variables investigated (pH, contact time, adsorbent dose and initial metal ion concentration). KEY CONCEPTS Acidity, Adsorption, Ferrierite, Morphology, Silica source. en_US
dc.format.extent xv, 92 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Limpopo en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Acidity en_US
dc.subject Adsorption en_US
dc.subject Ferrierite en_US
dc.subject Morphology en_US
dc.subject Silica resource en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Silicates en_US
dc.title Silica source-dependent synthesis of ferrierite : application in Cu 2+ removal from wastewater en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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