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dc.contributor.advisor Ambushe, A. A. Letsoalo, Mokgehle Refiloe
dc.contributor.other Magadzu, T.
dc.contributor.other Godeto, T. W. 2018-03-20T08:30:22Z 2018-03-20T08:30:22Z 2017
dc.description Thesis (M. Sc.(Chemistry)) -- University of Limpopo, 2017. en_US
dc.description.abstract Great Letaba and Mokolo Rivers are major sources of water for domestic use, agriculture and recreational activities in Limpopo Province, South Africa. These Rivers are predisposed to pollution sources from atmospheric deposition of mine dust, emissions from power stations and burning fuel, return flows from agriculture and municipal wastewater discharges and sewage effluents, which may potentially affect the quality of water and the inhabiting biota. Arsenic (As) is an element of prime concern in aquatic systems exposed to such pollution sources due to its toxicity to humans and aquatic life. The quantification and speciation of As in Mokolo and Great Letaba Rivers is important to assess the current levels and predict future trends in the quality of the two rivers. Speciation of As in water and sediments is crucial since the toxicity depends on its chemical forms. In this study, various analytical approaches were explored to precisely identify and quantify different As species in water and sediment samples collected from Great Letaba and Mokolo Rivers. Sample preparation was carried out with an intensive care to efficiently identify and quantify As species. Identification of each species in the samples was based on matching standard peaks with retention times by simple injection of standards of As species into Hamilton PRP X100 column. The chromatographic separation and determination of As3+, dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As5+ in water and sediment samples were achieved by on-line coupling of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A novel extraction method for As species in sediments based on 0.3 M (NH4)2HPO4 and 50 mM EDTA showed no species interconversion during extraction. Baseline separation of four As species was achieved in 12 minutes using gradient elution with 10 mM and 60 mM of NH4NO3 at pH 8.7 as mobile phases. The analytical figures of merits and validation of analytical procedures were assessed and adequate performance and percentage recoveries ranging from 81.1 – 102% for water sample and 73.0 – 92.0% for sediments were achieved. The As species concentration in water and sediment samples were found in the range 0.224 – 7.70 μg/L and 74.0 – 92.0 ng/g, respectively. The DMA was not detected in both water and sediment samples. viii The As content in sediments depends on the solid phase partitioning between inorganic As species and trace elements such as iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and aluminium (Al). Knowledge of the extent of this partitioning is important to evaluate the distribution and pathways of As in water, aquatic organisms and possible exposure of animals and human beings. Therefore, total concentrations of As, Fe, Mn and Al in water and sediment samples were determined using ICP-MS and inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The analytical procedures were validated using standard reference materials (SRMs) with percentage recoveries of trace elements ranging 84.0 – 95.6% for water samples and 75.0 – 120% for sediments. The As, Fe, Mn and Al concentrations obtained were further assessed for safe drinking water, irrigation water and for sediments quality about standard guidelines. Moreover, As species concentrations correlated with Fe, Mn and Al and the observed interactions depend on the adsorption capacities between As species and these trace elements. The inorganic species in water samples were also determined by employing off-line mode of solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) impregnated branched polyethyleneimine (BPEI) as an adsorbent material. The MWCNTs-BPEI characterised with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques indicated successful modification of the nanomaterial. The MWCNTs-BPEI exhibited selective retention of As5+ in the presence of As3+ in water samples with the achieved pre-concentration factor of 23.3. The retained As5+ was then eluted and detected using ICP-MS. A limit of detection (LOD) of 0.0537 μg/L and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.179 μg/L were achieved. The obtained percentage recovery of 81.0% validated the SPE procedure for selective retention of As5+. The As5+ concentrations determined after the SPE procedure were found in the range of 0.204 – 7.52 μg/L, which are in good agreement with As5+ results obtained using HPLC-ICP-MS. en_US
dc.format.extent xvii 134 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Pollution en_US
dc.subject Atmospheric mine deposits en_US
dc.subject Wastewater discharges en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Speciation (Chemistry) en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Trace elements - Speciation en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Atmospheric deposition en_US
dc.title Speciation of arsenic water and sediments from Mokolo and Greate Letaba Rivers, Limpopo Province en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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