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dc.contributor.advisor Mashela, P. W.
dc.contributor.advisor Pofu, K. M. Maleka, Koena Gideon 2021-07-05T09:57:53Z 2021-07-05T09:57:53Z 2020
dc.description Thesis (Ph.D. Agriculture (Plant Production)) -- University of Limpopo, 2020 en_US
dc.description.abstract Worldwide, both root-knot (Meloidogyne species) and sugarcane aphid (Melanaphis sacchari Zehntner), are economic pests on sugarcane and sorghum crops. In most cases, each of the two pests is managed using host plant resistance due to the economic benefits derived from this management strategy. The highly nematode resistant sweet stem sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) cv. 'Ndendane-X1' used in ethanol production, is highly sensitive to sugarcane aphid, with some indication that the latter could interfere with nematode resistance in the sorghum cultivar. This study had four objectives which collectively intended to investigate the interactive effects of infection by three Meloidogyne species and infestation by aphid under different conditions on resistance to nematode in a nematode-resistant sorghum cultivar. The research objectives were achieved through four trials. In each trial a 2 × 2 factorial experiment, each with and without nematode and aphid as first and second factors, respectively, were conducted. Treatments were arranged in a randomised complete block design, with six replications, and each experiment validated in time. At 150 days, after emergence, the nematode × aphid interaction significantly reduced sucrose by 17, 74 and 42% in Meloidogyne enterolobii, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica trials, respectively. Aphid infestation of sorghum significantly increased the reproductive potentials of the three respective Meloidogyne species by 196, 320 and 152%, but significantly, reduced plant growth variables from 20-44 and 48-51% in two respective trials. The mineral nutrients S and Zn were reduced in leaf tissues of the test cultivar in Trial 1, whereas Ca and Zn were respectively reduced by 24 and 51% in Trial 2 and by 52 and 51% in Trial 3. Since the reproductive potential values for Meloidogynqe species on the test sorghum cultivar were greater than unity and nematode infection reduced the plant variables, cv. 'Ndendane-X1' lost resistance to xx the test Meloidogyne species. In achieving Objective 2, procedures were similar to those in Objective 1 except that the study was conducted under field conditions under mixed nematode populations of M. enterolobii, M. incognita and M. javanica. Sorghum seedlings were raised at 0.3 m × 0.3 m inter and intra row spacings. Soon after emergence, plants were thinned to one per station, randomly selected for nematode and nematode-aphid treatments. Mixed populations of Meloidogyne species (M. enterolobii, M. incognita and M. javanica) at approximately 1:1:1 (v/v) ratio were applied at 300 eggs + J2 per plants after thinning at the five plants which were used as nematode alone treatments. The latter were also infested with 20 sugarcane aphids to constitute a nematode + aphid treatments. Buffer zone plants separating the treatments were monitored for aphids and stock borer, which were sprayed when necessary. At 150 days after infestation, relative to nematode alone, nematode-aphid significantly reduced degrees Brix from 13% to 61%, but significantly increased the reproductive potential of mixed Meloidogyne species and root galls by 279 and 199%, respectively. Also, the combined effect significantly reduced plant growth variables from 35 to 55% and the mineral nutrient elements in leaf tissues of the cultivar from 33 to 73%. At 150 days after the treatment, the second and first order interaction (Nemarioc-AL × Nemafric-BL × Mordica and Nemafric-BL × Mordica) had significantly increased sucrose content from 48 to 66%, increased plant growth variables from 49 to 163%, increased accumulation of certain nutrient elements from 164 to 206%. The terpenoid-containing phytonematicides could have potential future application in the husbandry of ethanol-producing sweet stem sorghum cultivars in relation to increasing sucrose above the 16% minimum for premium delivery fees and increased plant growth. Under field conditions, in pest-free condition (Objective 3), drenched terpenoid-containing phytonematicides significantly increased sucrose content at xxi middle and bottom part of SSS cv. 'Ndendane-X1' by 66 and 48%. However, these products did not significantly increase plant variables, except tiller number, which was increased by 163 under first order interaction from Nemafric-BL and Mordica phytonematicides. Similarly, nutrient elements variables had generally not been increased by the interaction of these products, except Ca and K, which were increased by 206 and 164%. In achieving Objective 4, a 2 × 2 × 2, with the first, second and third factor being Nemarioc-AL (with and without), Nemafric-BL (with and without) and Mordica (with and without) phytonematicides, respectively. on sorghum cultivar infected with a mixture of Meloidogyne species and infested with aphids, under microplot conditions, untreated control sucrose content remained below the standard of 16 degrees Brix, whereas the second order interaction increased the variable far above the standard, along with various plant growth variables also increased. However, both nematode and aphid population densities were significantly reduced by the interactions. Findings in this thesis constituted the first report where aphid infestation broke resistance to Meloidogyne species in sweet stem sorghum cv. 'Ndendane-X1'. Therefore, the successful use of nematode resistance in the cultivar in areas with high nematode population densities would depend upon the effective management of the sugarcane aphid population densities. Also, the three terpenoid-containing phytonematicides would when combined or used alone have the potential future in the husbandry of sweet stem sorghum cultivars intended for ethanol production and suppression of nematode population densities en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation (NRF) en_US
dc.format.extent xxii, 122 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Interactive effects en_US
dc.subject Meloidogyne species en_US
dc.subject Sugarcane aphid en_US
dc.subject nematode resistance en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Root-knot nematodes en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Sugarcane aphid en_US
dc.title Interactive effects of meloidogyne species and sugarcane aphid (melanaphis sacchari) on nematode resistance in sweet stem sorghum and effects of terpenoid-containing phytonematicides on both pests en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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