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dc.contributor.advisor van Staden, M.
dc.contributor.advisor Malan, H. Mokabane, Mamogobo Nelly 2021-12-01T07:45:46Z 2021-12-01T07:45:46Z 2019
dc.description Thesis (M. Sc. (Physiology)) -- University of Limpopo, 2019 en_US
dc.description.abstract Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with malnutrition and nutritional status of rural and urban primary school children aged 6–9 years. Literature background: Malnutrition is one of the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, affecting 10.9% of people globally, particularly in Southern Asian (15.7%) and sub-Saharan African (23.2%) countries undergoing urbanisation. Urbanisation affects diet, physical activity levels, body fatness, body composition and socio-economic factors. There is currently a shortage of information on the effect of urbanisation on nutritional status, especially in poor areas such as the Limpopo Province of South Africa. It is important to understand the effects that body fatness and associated risk factors have on stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight/obesity in urban and rural children. Subjects and design: This was a cross-sectional study including rural (n=106) and urban (n=68) primary school children aged 6–9 years. Anthropometric (weight and height) and skinfold measurements were taken and a 24-hour recall dietary assessment was conducted twice to include a week day and a weekend day. A questionnaire was used to gather demographic, health, dietary and physical activity information. Results: The prevalence of stunting, wasting, underweight, and overweight/obese children in this population was 14%, 6%, 20%, and 26% respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence stunting, wasting, and underweight were higher in rural areas compared to urban areas. Meanwhile, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was higher in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Gender, area (urban/rural) (p=0.0001), birthweight, time spent on sedentary activities, monthly household income (p=0.0210), mode of transport to school, and breastfeeding (p=0.0560) were all found to be significantly associated with malnutrition. Weekday dietary intake of Vitamins A and D was significally associated with BF%, whereas weekend consumption of energy, protein, calcium, iron, phosphorus, and zinc were not significantly associated with BF%. The mean energy and calcium intake between the urban and rural vi population only differed significantly over weekends and not during the week, while vitamin D differed significantly between urban and rural populations during the week only. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates that children in rural areas were significantly more wasted than those residing in urban areas, while those residing in urban areas were significantly more overweight/obese compared to rural areas. All indicators used for undernutrition were associated significantly with gender and the prevalence were higher males compared to females, but this significance disappeared for overnutrition. Families with a higher income tended to have children who were overweight or obese compared to families with a lower income. Children spending a lot of time on sedentary activities were more likely to be overweight or obese, and breastfeeding seemed to protect children from becoming overweight or obese, while low birth weight was associated with stunting. The weekaday and week-end diets indicate that school feeding schemes in the rural areas may be effective in increasing total energy intake in children and this should be further investigated. In this population, stunting, wasting, and underweight were not limited to rural areas, and should still be a health concern in urban areas, despite the fact that overweight/obesity is also prevalent in urban areas. Thus, overweight/obesity in this population can be prevented by promoting breastfeeding and physical activity, while at the same time discouraging children from partaking in too many sedentary activities. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation (NRF) en_US
dc.format.extent xv, 130 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Rural en_US
dc.subject Urban en_US
dc.subject Children en_US
dc.subject Malnutrition en_US
dc.subject Nutritional status en_US
dc.subject Prevalence en_US
dc.subject Urbanisation en_US
dc.subject Stunting en_US
dc.subject Wasting en_US
dc.subject Underweight en_US
dc.subject Overweight/obesity en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Malnutrition in children -- South Africa -- Limpopo en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Malnutrition -- South Africa -- Limpopo en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Nutrition -- Evaluation en_US
dc.title Prevalence of and risk factors for body fatness and nutritional status of urban and rural primary school children between the ages of six and nine years in the Polokwane Local Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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