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dc.contributor.advisor Maimela, E. Mkhari, Lillian Bridgette Tshameleni
dc.contributor.other Skaal, L. 2022-05-17T08:40:09Z 2022-05-17T08:40:09Z 2021
dc.description Thesis (MPH.) -- University of Limpopo, 2021 en_US
dc.description.abstract Introduction: HIV/AIDS remains a disease of public health importance and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) is one of the major problems. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most severely affected region, accounting for more than 90 percent of paediatric HIV infections. Most of these infections occurred during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding making the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) a public health priority. Over the last few years, efforts have been made in Sub-Saharan countries to improve PMTCT and the success of prevention of mother‐to‐child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is dependent upon high retention of mother‐infant pairs within the PMTCT cascade. Assessing the risk factors for MTCT will help to decrease child morbidity and mortality and strengthen PMTCT programs as there is dearth of evidence regarding factors determining MTCT HIV infection to infants born to HIV positive mothers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the determinants for the human Immunodeficiency Virus positivity rates in the Greater Letaba Municipality. The study objectives were to describe the demographic characteristics of mothers and babies who tested polymerase chain reaction test (PCR)-positive in the Greater Letaba Municipality during the two-year period from 2015 to 2016, in order to determine maternal and neonatal factors associated with high positive PCR; and to determine health system-related factors associated with a high positive PCR result. Methodology The current study followed a quantitative approach in which convenient and purposive sampling was used, focusing on records of infants born from HIV-positive women in all clinics at Greater Letaba Municipality were reviewed. All records of infants who were tested for HIV and the PCR results were positive from birth up to 12 months of age were retrospectively reviewed and for the health care workers, all nurses working as managers of a clinic were interviewed. The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23 computer software and Stata 15 was used. for comparison of categorical variables was done using a Chi-Squared test, whereas continuous variables were compared using a t-test and P-value of <0.05 was considered significant. To determine maternal and neonatal factors associated with high positive PCR, Factor analysis was used with rotated factor loadings done using the Varimax method. Results: A total of 107 records were retrieved and audited. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine the relationship between selected variables, where p<0.05 was set as level of significance. The findings reveal that the number of infants exposed to HIV during pregnancy has steadily increased. The current study further indicates that health system factors such as unskilled or untrained NIM-ART nurses in the facilities is a contributory factor to infant’s positivity rate in Greater Letaba hospital. Equal proportions of both male and female babies were found to be PCR positive at 6 weeks. The study further revealed that the highest proportion of the mothers who gave birth to PCR positive babies for the reporting period were married mothers, in the age group 25-29 years (46.1%). The second largest proportion of mothers who gave birth to PCR positive babies were single mothers in the age group 25-29 years (38.4%). The results show that high PCR positivity can be attributed to about 5 main Factors namely: maternal antenatal history (22% contribution to total variance), maternal HIV care history (18% contribution to total variance), measures of adherence to treatment (17% contribution to total variance), maternal exposure to HIV (14% contribution to total variance) and lastly the ART regimen (12% contribution to total variance). Conclusion: The study findings revealed that there is still vertical transmission of HIV to infants and the prevalence of HIV among infants born from seropositive mothers despite the availability of the latest Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) Guidelines in all health care facilities. Even though transmission is reduced to the meaningful number (< 5%), there are still appropriate measures that should be taken to reduce the transmission of HIV from mothers to infants. The delayed diagnosis, adherence to ART by mothers, infant ARV prophylaxis at birth and feeding practices contributed the vertical transmission of HIV to infants. Strengthening of the PMTCT of HIV programme, increasing antenatal HIV screening and linking it to care and treatment of HIV positive mothers to obtain zero infant HIV prevalence in the region. Infant prophylaxis and maternal PMTCT interventions should be provided to all exposed infants and mothers based on the guidelines by the health institutions. Nurse-initiated management of antiretroviral treatment (NIM-ART) training of professional nurses is being offered by the Department of Health in South Africa, but it does not yield positive results as far as the PMTCT is concerned. This may be due to shortage of staff, especially trained professional nurses (PN), as well as the workload. Key concepts: Infant and Human immune deficiency virus en_US
dc.format.extent xi, 89 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Infant and Human immune deficiency virus en_US
dc.subject Mother-to-child transmission en_US
dc.subject.lcsh HIV-positive persons en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Infants -- Diseases en_US
dc.subject.lcsh HIV-positive children en_US
dc.subject.lcsh HIV-positive persons -- South Africa -- Limpopo en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Virus diseases -- Transmission en_US
dc.title Determinants of infants Human Immunodeficiency Virus positivity rates in Greater Letaba Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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