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dc.contributor.advisor Maimela, E. Matikinca, Sibulele 2023-05-04T09:28:23Z 2023-05-04T09:28:23Z 2022
dc.description Thesis ( MPH.) -- University of Limpopo, 2022 en_US
dc.description.abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has recently resulted to be in an emergence state globally and this of constitute a big challenge for TB control and the goals of the World Health Organization’s End TB Strategy. Aminoglycosides (AG) were often used as part of treatment of life-threatening illnesses such as MDR-TB for decades, however their adverse effects are widely described and hearing loss is one of the major side effects. The risk factors for hearing loss in patients treated with AG include the dose and duration of AG, infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), older age and persons exposed to a high level of noise while the damage can be total and permanent. Severe hearing impairment has been reported to occur among patients treated for MDR-TB with injectable drugs, especially among the elderly and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, however, Bedaquiline containing regimens have demonstrated improved outcomes over injectable containing regimens in the long-term treatment of MDR-TB. Methods The objective of the current study was to investigate the burden of hearing loss amongst MDR-TB patients on bedaquiline at Zithulele Hospital in Eastern Cape Province. Therefore, the current study followed a quantitative retrospective approach using simple random sampling to select MDR-TB patients treated with bedaquiline and having a baseline audiogram be the initiation of treatment. The data was captured in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and then transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 20 for data analysis in which categorical variables were presented as percentages and frequencies, while continuous variables was presented as mean, median and standard deviation lastly, comparison of categorical variables was done using a Chi-Squared test, whereas continuous variables were compared using a t-test. P-value of <0.05 will be considered significant. Results The mean age for the participants was 39.2 years with standard deviation of 11.8 and there was no statistical significance difference between the age groups (p value = 0.178). There no was a statistical significance difference between the employment status (p value = 0.794), previous use of injectables (p value = 0.360) and type of hearing of loss (p value = 0.536). Majority of the MDR-TB patients on bedaquiline did not have hearing loss at 67% while those who had gradual hearing loss and sudden hearing loss were 26.8% and 6.2% respectively. There was no statistical significance difference between males and females in both the right and left ears, however, the right ear results appeared to be slightly worse than the left ear results. It was found that both males and females had a high frequency hearing loss in the left ears of 26.8% and 22.2% respectively as compared to the right ears with of 25.9% and 1.6% respectively. The was a statistical significance difference between the age groups in both ears for hearing loss at p-value <0.001. The overall prevalence of hearing loss was found to be 32.9% and hearing loss at 20dB or more loss at any frequency was low at 11.9% while hearing loss at 10B or more loss at any frequency was the highest at 32.9% followed by loss response at 3 consecutive frequencies at 26.2%. Hearing loss was increasing with increasing age from 8.3% in age group and age was significantly associated with hearing loss as older patients were 2.2 times more likely to have a hearing loss at a degree of 20dB and 4.4 times more likely to have a hearing loss at a degree of 10dB. Previous use of injectables was also significantly associated with hearing loss as patients who used injectables previously were 11.5 times more likely to have a hearing loss at degree of 10dB, 5.6 and 11.3 times more likely to have a hearing loss at loss response at 3 consecutive frequencies and overall hearing loss respectively. Conclusion South Africa has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) and until recently, ototoxic aminoglycosides were predominant in treatment regimens. Drug resistant TB treatment with bedaquilines caused clinically and statistically significant deterioration of hearing loss in patients, most prominently at high frequencies. Although public health interventions to prevent hearing loss have been deemed cost effective and have meaningful individual and economic implications, hearing loss and its prevention consistently receive inadequate attention as a global public health priority. Despite the serious impacts of hearing loss, little is known regarding prevalence of ototoxic hearing loss after treatment for DR-TB. Therefore, when the use of injectable ototoxic medications is unavoidable, audiological ototoxicity monitoring is essential to optimise hearing-related outcomes. en_US
dc.format.extent xii, 41 leaves en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Hearing loss en_US
dc.subject Multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis patients en_US
dc.subject Zithulele Hospital en_US
dc.subject Eastern Cape Province en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Deafness en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Tuberculosis -- Treatment en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Aminoglycosides en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Tuberculosis -- Patients en_US
dc.title The burden of hearing loss amongst multi-drug resistant-tuberculosis patients on Bedaquiline at Zithulele Hospital, Eastern Cape Province. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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