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dc.contributor.advisor Theron, J. Mbokane, Esau Mathews
dc.contributor.other Luus-Powel, W. J. 2013-04-11T06:33:39Z 2013-04-11T06:33:39Z 2011
dc.description Thesis (M.SC. (Aquaculture)) --University of Limpopo, 2011 en_US
dc.description.abstract The present MSc dissertation emanates from seasonal surveys conducted by the fish parasitological group of the Department of Biodiversity and Aquaculture Research Unit of the University of Limpopo, Turfloop Campus. The first part of the present study was aimed at investigating the metazoan parasites of three cyprinids occurring in the Nwanedi-Luphephe Dams. The main purpose of it was to determine temporal changes in the intensity of infestation in terms of prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of parasite species parasitizing the cyprinids studied over a two year period. Ecological parameters including species host-specificity, seasonality, and gender preference and host size versus species intensity are discussed for each parasite. Altogether 152 specimens were examined for parasites and a total of 2 432 metazoan parasites of ten species were recorded. At the sampling site, all three hosts co-occurred, however, a substantial proportion of Barbus radiatus was collected from the perennial stream feeding one of the twindams. Fish were sampled by means of gill nets and electrofishing or seine netting in accordance with the habitat conditions. Hosts were killed and organs investigated for metazoan parasites. After collection of parasites, standard methods for processing individual parasites were followed. The results obtained revealed the following groups of parasites; monogeneans (ectoparasites) included Dactylogyrus spinicirrus, D. afrolongicornis afrolongicornis, D. afrolongicornis alberti, Afrodiplozoon polycotyleus, Gyrodactylus sp., and Dogielius sp. (all recorded from the gills); Crustacea, Dolops ranarum was found from the mouth cavity, gills and skin of Labeobarbus marequensis. Of these, only two specialists, both monogeneans, were found on Barbus trimaculatus namely, D. afrolongicornis afrolongicornis and D. afrolongicornis alberti. Based on morphology of the haptoral hard parts, these two species were almost similar to each other than to D. spinicirrus. The appreciable difference between D. afrolongicornis afrolongicornis and D. afrolongicornis alberti was mainly in the shape of the marginal bar. Both D. spinicirrus and A. polycotyleus were widely distributed and recorded on the gills of all hosts during all seasons. Both species were recorded for the first time on B. radiatus. Also, D. spinicirrus was recorded for the first time on the gills of B. trimaculatus. Based on comparison with the original material, the species could be identified to species level. These analyses provided sufficient evidence for restoration of Afrodiplozoon polycotyleus as a valid taxon. The existence of two species, Gyrodactylus sp. and Dogielius sp. were recorded for the first time on B. radiatus in South Africa, and this possibly represents new species. The endoparasites included the following groups: digeneans- Diplostomulum metacercariae from the eyes of Lb. marequensis, Ornithodiplostomum sp. and black spot (grubs) were recorded from B. trimaculatus. The latter was also recorded in the muscle of B. radiatus. Unidentified digenean cysts were recovered from the gills and in the body cavity of both Lb. marequensis and B. trimaculatus; nematodes were represented by Contracaecum larvae in the body cavity of both Lb. marequensis and B. trimaculatus; cestodes were represented by gryporynchid larvae from the intestine of B. radiatus. The general high prevalence and intensities of ectoparasites recorded is an indication that the Nwanedi-Luphephe Dams has a biotic mechanism which might have enabled it to sustain the growth rate of ectoparasite intra-population. There was no correlation between either fish length or condition factor and the number of parasites. The study indicated that the abundance of monogeneans is partly influenced by season and that of endoparasites was principally governed by the presence of intermediate hosts and definitive hosts. The second part of this dissertation dealt with the health status of Lb. marequensis. Fish health was assessed using condition-related indices including condition factor and a modified Health Assessment Index (HAI) and the associated Parasite Index (PI). The HAI was performed to determine and examine any macroscopic abnormalities regarding external features and internal organs. The purpose of combining the two indices was to use the infestation of the metazoan parasites found on and/or in Lb. marequensis to determine whether or not the environment they live in was healthy. Both indices together with the condition factor provided relatively simple and rapid indications of how well fish were coping in their environment. The HAI score varied amongst the four sampling seasons. The highest individual mean value was 63 in winter, followed by a score of 50 in autumn, while the lowest were 42 and 33 in summer and spring respectively. To authenticate the HAI and PI data, certain water quality variables were measured and are discussed in detail in this dissertation. The Nwanedi-Luphephe Dams are generally believed to have good water quality. This was supported in this study; conditions assessed in fish using the aforementioned indices did not differ greatly between seasons, nor did the conditions deviate appreciably from normality. The HAI values were low overall which signifies a healthy fish profile for the system. The present investigation showed the existence of differences in the occurrence of individual parasite to be linked to water temperature changes. Thus, seasonal changes do influence parasite developmental stages to a certain degree. Tested heavy and trace metals were within the permissible limits as provided by the Department of Water Affairs and Tourism (DWAF, 1996). en_US
dc.format.extent xi, 160 leaves. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus) en_US
dc.relation.requires PDF en_US
dc.subject Fish parasites en_US
dc.subject Metazoan parasites en_US
dc.subject Fishes en_US
dc.subject Health status of fishes en_US
dc.subject.ddc 597.46 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- parasites en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- parasites -- biological control en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Cyprinids en_US
dc.title Metazoan parasites and health of selected cyprinids at Nwanedi-Luphephe dams en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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