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dc.contributor.advisor Moyo, N. A. G. Hlophe, Samkelisiwe Nosipho
dc.contributor.other Sara, J. R. 2013-04-15T10:01:56Z 2013-04-15T10:01:56Z 2012
dc.description Thesis (M.Sc. (Aquaculture)) -- University of Limpopo, 2012 en_US
dc.description.abstract The feeding habits of a macrophagous fish, Tilapia rendalli, were investigated at an oligotrophic dam that has no macrophytes, Flag Boshielo Dam. This dam supports a significant population of the macrophagous, Tilapia rendalli. The diet of T. rendalli was investigated by examining the frequency of occurrence of different food items in the stomach of the fish over a period of twelve months. A size related dietary shift was evident. The diet of juvenile fish (<5 cm) was dominated by zooplankton and the diet of adult fish (>15 cm) was predominantly marginal vegetation, particularly Cyperus sexangulasris and Panicum schinzi. However, dietary overlaps between the different size groups were evident. The diversity of food items increased with fish size until the fish were 15 cm in length and thereafter declined as the fish predominately fed on marginal vegetation. Scales were used to determine the age of T. rendalli. Age at length data was fitted to the Von Bertalanffy growth model, which showed that males grew faster and attained a larger size than females. The growth of T. rendalli in Flag Boshielo Dam was comparable to those reported in other dams with macrophytes. It is inferred here that the absence of macrophytes is not a limiting factor in the growth of T. rendalli in lentic ecosystems. The ability of T. rendalli to achieve good growth rates when feeding on marginal vegetation prompted a subsequent study where its utilisation of readily available plant diets was evaluated under culture conditions. The culture of macrophagous fish that naturally feed on plant diets may be the solution to reduce the current dependence on fishmeal. Fishmeal is not only expensive, but its supply is not always guaranteed. This study focussed on the growth performance, gastric evacuation rate, gastric transit time and carcass composition of Tilapia rendalli fed fresh plants, to determine the extent to which T. rendalli can utilise fresh plants. Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), duckweed (Lemna minor), vallisneria (Vallisneria aethiopica) and fishmeal pellets (control) were offered ad libitum to duplicate groups of T. rendalli for 224 days. Specific growth rate (SGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and food conversion ratio (FCR) were used to determine the growth performance. Fish fed kikuyu grass attained a significantly (P<0.05) higher SGR and a better FCR than those fed on the other plant diets. Fish fed vallisneria lost weight. The serial slaughter method showed that vallisneria was vii evacuated significantly (P<0.05, ANCOVA) faster and was eaten in significantly (P<0.05) higher quantities than the other diets. Kikuyu grass was evacuated much more slowly and eaten in lesser amounts than the other plant diets. The low energy content (14.74 MJ/kg) of vallisneria may explain its faster evacuation and high consumption levels. Digestibility studies indicated that T. rendalli is capable of breaking down both cellulose and fibre. Fish fed kikuyu grass had higher protein levels, higher omega-3 fatty acids (25.13%) and higher mineral content than those fed on the other experimental diets. Fishmeal fed fish had the lowest content of the omega-3 fatty acids (2.52%). T. rendalli performed better when fed plant diets with higher protein and energy contents. The good growth performance and carcass quality of T. rendalli fed on kikuyu grass, led to another study where the use of kikuyu grass meal as a dietary protein replacement for fishmeal in practical diets for T. rendalli was evaluated. To determine the optimum substitution level, kikuyu grass meal was used to replace 20, 40, 60 and 80% of fishmeal in isonitrogenous (CP =16.70%) and isocaloric (GE =15.20 MJ/kg) diets. The test diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish held in 1 m3 fibre glass tanks at 10 (36 ± 2 g) fish per tank for 60 days. The best specific growth rate (1.60 g/day) and feed conversion ratio (1.86) were recorded for fish fed diets with 20% kikuyu grass meal. The lowest specific growth rate (1.29 g/day) and feed conversion ratio (2.56) were recorded for fish fed diets with 80% kikuyu grass meal. When the level of kikuyu grass meal was more than 20% in the diet, growth performance was reduced. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the growth performance indices measured across the tested diets. The observed reduction in growth for diets containing higher kikuyu grass meal is explained by the decreasing amino acids levels (particularly methionine and lysine) and increasing fibre content. The results from the growth trials suggest that kikuyu grass meal is a suitable protein replacement for the expensive fishmeal in T. rendalli practical diets when it constitutes up to 20% of the dietary protein. en_US
dc.format.extent xiii, 173 leaves : col. ill., map. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.relation.requires Adobe acrobat reader, version 8 en_US
dc.subject Fish feeding en_US
dc.subject Aquaculture en_US
dc.subject Fish as food en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Tilapia en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fish culture en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- Feeding and feeds en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Fishes -- Nutrition en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Aquaculture en_US
dc.title The feeding and growth of Tilapia Rendalli in relation to its aquaculture potential en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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