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dc.contributor.advisor Mampuru, L.J. Mbazima, Vusi G. 2013-08-22T10:41:18Z 2013-08-22T10:41:18Z 2009
dc.description Thesis (Ph.D. (Biochemistry)) --University of Limpopo, 2009 en_US
dc.description.abstract Commelina benghalensis Linn is used in traditional medicine in several Asian and African countries for the treatment of various ailments such as stomach irritations, burns, sore throat and feet, diarrhoea and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Recently, our laboratory showed that the crude methanolic extract of Commelina benghalensis L (CMECB) exhibits growth inhibitory and proapoptotic effects in Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cancer cell lines. In this study, the precise molecular mechanism(s) associated with CMECB-induced growth inhibitory and apoptosis inducing effects in Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cell lines were investigated. This was achieved by investigating the effects of the extract on the cell division cycle distribution profile as well as its effects on various cell division cycle and apoptosis regulatory genes. Ground stems of C. benghalensis L were extracted with absolute methanol to obtain a crude extract. To assess the effect of CMECB on cancer cell growth, experimental cell cultures were exposed to various concentrations (0 to 600 μg/ml) of CMECB for up to 72 hours. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in cell viability and inhibition of proliferation of experimental cell cultures as determined by the trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the Coulter counter method, respectively. Analysis of nuclear morphological changes in cells stained with Hoechst 33258 confirmed apoptosis as the mode of cell death that is associated with the growth inhibitory effects of CMECB in both the Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cell lines. This assertion was based on the observed presence of nuclear morphological changes such as chromatin condensation and fragmentation and apoptotic bodies in cells exposed to CMECB. In order to get an insight on the pro-apoptotic mechanisms of CMECB, Western blot xxi and quantitative real-time PCR (qrt-PCR) were used to investigate the expression profiles of various apoptosis and cell division cycle regulatory genes. Qrt-PCR results showed a lack of a clear up- and/or down-regulatory effects of CMECB on the mRNA expression levels of bax and bcl-2 in both Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cells. Western blot analyses demonstrated that CMECB induced apoptosis by facilitating Bax protein translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria in both Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cells. In addition, CMECB down-regulated Bcl-2 protein expression which, as a result, led to the shift in the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio at certain time points and concentration in both Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cells. The modulation of the Bcl-2 family members led to mitochondrial cytochrome c release into the cytosol and activation of caspases-9 and -3; this was also confirmed by caspase activity assays and eventual degradation of PARP. Furthermore, CMECB induced Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cell division cycle arrest at the G2/M phase as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Western blot analyses of G2/M phase regulatory proteins demonstrated that the CMECB-induced cell division cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin B1 and Cdc2 protein expression levels. Western blot analyses results further revealed that the arrest of Wil-2 NS cells at the G2/M phase was independent of p21 protein activity. However, Jurkat T cell division cycle arrest was found to be mediated, in part, by p21. Quantitative real-time PCR results did not show a clear trend in terms of the down- or up-regulatory effects of the extracts on the G2/M phase regulatory genes. The CMECBinduced apoptosis and G2/M arrest was found to occur in a p53-independent xxii manner due to the lack and down-regulation of p53 protein levels in both Jurkat T and Wil-2 NS cells, respectively. In conclusion, CMECB induces its anticancer activity by inducing G2/M phase arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis independent of p53 protein activity. Although the study did not perform in vivo experiments to ascertain the efficacy of extracts of CMECB against specific tumour types in animal models, the present findings somehow validate the traditional use of C. benghalensis L as an anticancer agent. A more definitive study needs to be done to ascertain this assertion. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship National Research Foundation and the University of Limpopo research office en_US
dc.format.extent xxiii, 143 leaves : ill.(some col.) en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher University of Limpopo (Turfloop Campus) en_US
dc.relation.requires pdf en_US
dc.subject Crude methanolic extract en_US
dc.subject Commelina benghalensis linn en_US
dc.subject Apoptotic en_US
dc.subject Jurkat T en_US
dc.subject Will-2 NS cancer cell lines en_US
dc.subject.ddc 615.321 en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Herbals -- South Africa en_US
dc.subject.lcsh Medicinal plants en_US
dc.title The Effects of Crude Methanolic Extract of Commelina benghalensis Linn on the Expression of Apoptotic and Cell Division Cycle Genes in Jurkat T and Wil-2 NSCancer Cell Lines. en_US
dc.type Thesis en_US

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